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INDIA, Mughal Empire. Suleiman Mirza, Sub-king in Badakhshan.1529-1584. AV 1/8 Ashrafi or 1/20 Mohur (0.51 g, 6h). Dated AH 963 (1555/6 AD). The Kalima in three lines / Titles of Suleiman and AH date. Cf. Album 2464 (1/4 Ashrafi of Mughal Emperor Humayun). VF, weak strike. Rare, and unpublished in the standard references. ($1500)

The Mirzas were a sub-clan of the Timurids who that conquered northern India and established the Mughal empire. Most of the fractional gold of Badakhshan bore the names of the Mughal rulers, Babar, Humayan, and Akbar. The gold denomination is normally quoted as a 1/4 ashrafi of circa 1.10 grams. This smaller denomination appears to be unpublished.


The Islamic Mughal Empire was founded in 1526 by the Mongol leader Babar, the great-great-grandson of Timur (Tamerlane), following his defeat of Ibrahim Lodi, the last sultan of Delhi. Although relatively modest in size under its first two rulers, from the time of Akbar the empire underwent a period of expansion, eventually including much of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and portions of the Indian subcontinent. The empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, after whom it experienced a slow and steady decline. Greatly weakened after its defeats by Persian armies under Nadir and Ahmad Shah in the 1700s, the Empire was slowly consumed by the British, who finally dissolved it in 1857.

The following list is a partial genealogy of the emperors, their relatives, and usurpers, emphasizing those who struck coinage. The emperors are indicated by Latin numerals, and the names in brackets have no known coins.

1. Zahir-al-Din Babar (1525-1530)- great-great-grandson of Timur
2. Nasir-al-Din Muhammad Humayun (1530-1556)- son of Babar
3. Jalal-al-Din Muhammad Akbar (1556-1605)- son of Humayun
4. Nur-al-Din Muhammad Jahangir (1605-1627)- son of Akbar
Dawar Bakhsh (1627)- grandson of Jahangir
[Shahriyar] (1627)- youngest son of Jahangir
5. Shihab-al-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan (1627-1658)- eldest son of Jahangir
[Dara] (1657)- first son of Shah Jahan
6. Muhayyi al-Din Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707)- second son of Shah Jahan
Murawwij-al-Din Muhammad Murad Bakhsh (1658)- younger son of Shah Jahan
Shah Shuja (1657-1658)- younger son of Shah Jahan
7. Mu'azzam Shah Alam Bahadur (1707-1712)- son of Aurangzeb
Azam Shah (1707)- younger son of Aurangzeb
Kam Bakhsh (1707-1708) younger son of Aurangzeb
Azim-ush-Shan (1712)- older son of Shah Alam
[Khujistah Akhtar]- younger son of Shah Alam
[Rafi-ush-Shan]- younger son of Shah Alam
8. Jahandar Shah (1712)- younger son of Shah Alam
9. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719)- son of Azim-ush-Shan
Rafi-ud-Darjat (1719)- son of Rafi-ush-Shan
Shah Jahan II Rafi-ud-Dawla (1719) son of Rafi-ush-Shan
Muhammad Ibrahim (1720)- son of Rafi-ud-Dawla
Nikusiyar (1719)- grandson of Aurangzeb
10. Muhammad Shah (1719-1748)- son of Khujistah Akhtar
11. Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748-1754)- son of Muhamamd Shah
12. Aziz-al-Din Alamgir II (1754-1759)- son of Jahandar
Shah Jahan III (1759-1760)- grandson of Kam Bakhsh
13. Shah Alam II (1759-1806)- son of Alamgir II
Muhammad Bidar Bakht (1788)- son of Ahmad Shah (puppet of Ghulam Qadir)
14. Muhammad Akbar II (1806-1837)- son of Shah Alam II
15. Suraj-al-Din Muhammad Bahadur Shah II (1837-banished 1858-died 1862)- son of Muhammad Akbar II


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