Caucasian Rugs - Construction
The material used is mostly wool, although some cotton, when available, has been used. Silk is unheard of generally. The
knot used is Turkish.
1. The warp is usually in shades; of brown, natural or may be dyed.
2. The weft is usually two threads after each row of knots. The Kazaks will employ red weft and use three or' four at times;
this usually accompanies high pile construction.
3. The woof or pile is the result of knotting, is invariably wool. The finer the wool the finer the knot. Shirvan and Kuba
are fine-knotted and low pile. Medium pile is from the Talish and Daghestan area. High-pile rugs are typically found in the
Kazak, Karabagh, and Moghan regions. (See map.)
4. The selvedge and fringe ends need more study, for in many cases, the learned rug person can, decipher the rug from the
edges. Suffice to say they differ greatly.
Caucasian Rugs - Color
So often one hears the expression, "vegetable dyes." This is a misnomer. "Natural dyes" is more appropriate for with nature's
gifts for dyers one synthesize and create color. colors are:
White: either bleached or natural.
Madder Red: from the root of the madder plant, can vary in shade of selected roots from light-orange red to deep rich reds
or even to purple reds.
Cochineal: The female of the cochineal beetle produces a red dye processed by roasting and grinding.
Brown: Walnut husks are used to produce brown and enhanced by redying in indigo.
Indigo: By fermenting the blossoms of the indigo plant, liquor is produced that can be varied to give every shade of blue.
The length of immersion is the key.
Black: Brown wool dyed with indigo blue produces a lustrous black. A brittle and somewhat corrosive result is had when
iron pyrites is used with the bark of the mountain ash.
Yellow: Pear leaves, buckhorn berries, almonds and saffron with pomegranate are used to produce shades of yellow.Green:
Use of copper filings is another example of "corrosive" or brittle dye. Saffron and indigo are safer but fade easier.
Caucasian Rugs - Design
The designs of Caucasian rugs are both in the simple and refined classification.The simple is the box, the rosette, the
cruciform (almost always attributed to the Christian Armenians), camels, goats, lions, lilies, tulips, shears, houses, People,
waves, scorpions, even peacocks. These are laid out in visibly rectilinear and geometric design. The refined may be the same
simple objects more intricately combined. Repeat or all-over designs have been stylized and perfected to machine-like precision.
The influence of the Persian botehs (paisleys), palmettos and combatant animals is reflected the Caucasian rugs of the south.
To the north the Russian influence was present in their desire for a "French look," therefore foliated French style of light