Kilims are produced by tightly interweaving the warp and weft strands of the weave to produce a flat surface with
no pile. Most kilim weaves are "weft-facing", i.e., the horizontal weft strands are pulled tightly downward so that they hide
the vertical warp strands.
When the end of a color boundary is reached, the weft yarn is wound back from the boundary point. Thus, if the boundary
of a field is a straight vertical line, a vertical slit forms between the two different color areas where they meet. For this
reason, most kilims can be classed as "slit woven" textiles. The slits are beloved by collectors, as they produce very sharp-etched
designs, emphasizing the Geometry of the weave. Weaving strategies for avoiding slit formation, such as interlocking, produce
a more blurred design image.
The weft strands, which carry the visible design and color, are almost always wool, whereas the hidden warp strands can
be either wool or cotton. The warp strands are only visible at the ends, where they emerge as the fringe. This fringe is usually
tied in bunches, to ensure against loosening or unraveling of the weave. [Source for this description of the weaving: Davies
Ardabil rugs feature motifs that are very similar to Caucasian rugs, but with more motifs and objects woven into the borders.
The colors are also lighter. The patterns are predominantly geometric and the most common layouts on Ardabil rugs are medallions,
multiple connected diamond-shaped medallions, and all-over octagonal shapes. The most recognized design found on Ardabil rugs
is the famous Mahi (Herati) design - a diamond medallion and small fish throughout. Some modern weavers have begun to favor
bold geometric patterns over the traditional Mahi (Herati) design and have added colors such as turquoise and purple to the
more traditional red, pink, ivory, green, and blue.